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IL-4 and IL-13 are key drivers of Type 2 inflammation in severe asthma1–4

Type 2 cytokines drive the recruitment of effector cells (e.g. eosinophils) and mediate class switching of B cells to secrete IgE upon exposure to antigens5

Hallmarks of Type 2 pathway activation include IgE production and eosinophilia6

  • The Type 2 cytokine IL-4 drives the differentiation and clonal expansion of Th cells6
  • IL-4 and IL-13 are primarily responsible for isotype class switching of B cells to produce IgE6
  • IL-13 effects include mucus secretion, smooth muscle contractility and hyperplasia6

Adapted from Robinson D et al. 2017,5 Gandhi NA et al. 2016,6 Krings JG et al. 2019,7 Lambrecht BN and Hammad H 2015,8 Fahy J. 2015,9 and Le Floc’h A et al. 2020.10

How does DUPIXENT target Type 2 inflammation in severe asthma?


IgE, Immunoglobulin E; IL, interleukin; ILC, innate lymphoid cells; PGD2, Prostaglandin D2; Th, T-helper.


  1. Tran TN, et al. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2016;116(1):37–42.
  2. Seys SF, et al. Respir Res. 2017;18:39.
  3. Peters MC, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(2):388–394.
  4. Doran E, et al. Front Med. 2017;4:139.
  5. Robinson D, et al. Clin Exp Allergy. 2017;47(2):161–175.
  6. Gandhi NA, et al. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016;15:35–50.
  7. Krings JG, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019;7(5):1379–1392.
  8. Lambrecht BN and Hammad H. Nat Immunol. 2015;16(1):45–46.
  9. Fahy JV. Nat Rev Immunol. 2015;15(1):57–65.
  10. Le Floc’h A, et al. Allergy. 2020;75(5):1188–1204.