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The dysregulated Type 2 immune response drives AD

Three types of immune response play a natural protective role against different pathogens, the Type 2 immune response drives AD specifically2-4

Type 2 inflammation, due to increased signalling of IL-4 and IL-13, contributes to the clinical disease features of AD4–6


Dysregulation of the Type 2 immune response5,7


Leads to increased signalling and production of IL-4 and IL-135


Which drives and perpetuates Type 2 inflammation5


Resulting in the clinical disease features of AD:4,6

  • Skin barrier dysfunction
  • Skin lesions
  • Itch
  • Increased susceptibility to skin infections

Selectively targeting a single signalling receptor, the IL-4Rα, thereby inhibiting IL-4 and IL-13 signalling, can help to reduce the persistent underlying Type 2 inflammation in AD8

Learn more about the pathophysiology of AD

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AD, atopic dermatitis; IL, interleukin; IL-4Rα, interleukin 4 receptor alpha; ILC, innate lymphoid cells; Th, T-helper cells.


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  3. Suárez-Fariñas M, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(4):954–964.
  4. Gittler JK, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(6):1344–1354.
  5. Gandhi NA, et al. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016;15:35–50.
  6. Biedermann T, et al. Front Immunol. 2015;6:353.
  7. Artis D & Spits H. Nature. 2015;517:293–301.
  8. Guttman-Yassky E, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019;143:155– 172.